000002413 001__ 2413
000002413 005__ 20190326164007.0
000002413 022__ $$a2169-8996
000002413 0247_ $$2DOI$$a10.1029/2018JD028295
000002413 037__ $$aARTICLE
000002413 041__ $$aeng
000002413 245__ $$aAn analysis of current and electric field pulses associated with upward negative lightning flashes initiated from the Säntis tower
000002413 260__ $$c2018
000002413 269__ $$a2018-04
000002413 300__ $$a15 pages
000002413 506__ $$avisible
000002413 520__ $$9eng$$aWe present a study on the characteristics of current and electric field pulses associated with upward lightning flashes initiated from the instrumented Säntis Tower in Switzerland. The electric field was measured 15 km from the tower. Upward flashes always begin with the initial stage composed of the upward‐leader phase and the initial‐continuous‐current (ICC) phase. Four types of current pulses are identified and analyzed in the paper: (1) return‐stroke pulses, which occur after the extinction of the ICC and are preceded by essentially no‐current time intervals; (2) mixed‐mode ICC pulses, defined as fast pulses superimposed on the ICC, which have characteristics very similar to those of return strokes and are believed to be associated with the reactivation of a decayed branch or the connection of a newly created channel to the ICC‐carrying channel at relatively small junction heights; (3) “classical” M‐component pulses superimposed on the continuing current following some return strokes; and (4) M‐component‐type ICC pulses, presumably associated with the reactivation of a decayed branch or the connection of a newly created channel to the ICC‐carrying channel at relatively large junction heights. We consider a data set consisting of 9 return‐stroke pulses, 70 mixed‐mode ICC pulses, 11 classical M‐component pulses, and 19 M‐component‐type ICC pulses (a total of 109 pulses). The salient characteristics of the current and field waveforms are analyzed. A new criterion is proposed to distinguish between mixed‐mode and M‐component‐type pulses, which is based on the current waveform features. The characteristics of M‐component‐type pulses during the initial stage are found to be similar to those of classical M‐component pulses occurring during the continuing current after some return strokes. It is also found that about 41% of mixed‐mode ICC pulses were preceded by microsecond‐scale pulses occurring in electric field records some hundreds of microseconds prior to the onset of the current, very similar to microsecond‐scale electric field pulses observed for M‐component‐type ICC pulses and which can be attributed to the junction of an in‐cloud leader channel to the current‐carrying channel to ground. Classical M‐component pulses and M‐component‐type ICC pulses tend to have larger risetimes ranging from 6.3 to 430 μs. On the other hand, return‐stroke pulses and mixed‐mode ICC pulses have current risetimes ranging from 0.5 to 28 μs. Finally, our data suggest that the 8‐μs criterion for the current risetime proposed by Flache et al. is a reasonable tool to distinguish between return strokes and classical M‐components. However, mixed‐mode ICC pulses superimposed on the ICC can sometimes have considerably longer risetimes, up to about 28 μs, as observed in this study.
000002413 546__ $$aEnglish
000002413 540__ $$acorrect
000002413 592__ $$aHEIG-VD
000002413 592__ $$bIICT - Institut des Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication
000002413 592__ $$cIngénierie et Architecture
000002413 592__ $$aHEI-VS
000002413 592__ $$bInstitut Systèmes industriels
000002413 65017 $$aIngénierie
000002413 6531_ $$9eng$$alightning
000002413 6531_ $$9eng$$aupward lightning
000002413 6531_ $$9eng$$areturn stroke
000002413 6531_ $$9eng$$atall structures
000002413 6531_ $$9eng$$acharge transfer mode
000002413 6531_ $$9eng$$alightning electric field
000002413 655__ $$ascientifique
000002413 700__ $$aHe, Lixia$$uKey Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Ministry of Education(KLME) ; Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters (CIC-FEMD) ; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Meteorological Observation and Information Processing, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China ; Electromagnetic Compatibility Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland
000002413 700__ $$aAzadifar, Mohammad$$uElectromagnetic Compatibility Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland ; School of Management and Engineering Vaud, HES-SO // University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland
000002413 700__ $$aRachidi, Farhad$$uElectromagnetic Compatibility Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland
000002413 700__ $$aRubinstein, Marcos$$uSchool of Management and Engineering Vaud, HES-SO // University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland
000002413 700__ $$aRakov, Vladimir A.$$uDepartment of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainseville, FL, USA ; Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
000002413 700__ $$aCooray, Vernon$$uDivision for Electricity, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
000002413 700__ $$aPavanello, Davide$$uSchool of Engineering, HES-SO Valais-Wallis, HEI, HES-SO // University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland
000002413 700__ $$aXing, Hongyan$$uKey Laboratory of Meteorological Disaster, Ministry of Education(KLME); Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters (CIC-FEMD); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Meteorological Observation and Information Processing, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, China
000002413 773__ $$g2018, 123, 8, pp. 4045-4059$$tJournal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
000002413 8564_ $$s2363292$$uhttps://hesso.tind.io/record/2413/files/Rubinstein_2018_S%C3%A4ntis_tower.pdf$$yRubinstein_2018_Säntis_tower
000002413 909CO $$ooai:hesso.tind.io:2413$$pGLOBAL_SET
000002413 906__ $$aGREEN
000002413 950__ $$aI2
000002413 980__ $$ascientifique