Restaurant tipping in Europe : a comparative assessment

Gössling, Stefan (Western Norway Research Institute, Sogndal, Norway ; Lund University, Helsingborg, Sweden ; Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden) ; Fernandez, Sébastien (Ecole hôtelière de Lausanne, HES-SO // University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland) ; Martin-Rios, Carlos (Ecole hôtelière de Lausanne, HES-SO // University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland) ; Reyes, Susana Pasamar (Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain) ; Fointiat, Valérie (Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France) ; Isaac, Rami K. (Breda University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands) ; Lunde, Merete (Western Norway Research Institute, Sogndal, Norway)

Tipping is a social norm in many countries and has important functions as a source of income, with significant social welfare effects. Tipping can also represent a form of lost tax revenue, as service workers and restaurants may not declare all cash tips. These interrelationships remain generally insufficiently understood. This paper presents the results of a comparative survey of resident tipping patterns in restaurants in Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, and the Netherlands. ANOVA and ANCOVA analyses confirm significant variation in tipping norms between countries, for instance with regard to the frequency of tipping and the proportion of tips in relation to bill size. The paper discusses these findings in the context of employment conditions and social welfare effects, comparing the European Union minimum wage model to gratuity-depending income approaches in the USA. Results have importance for the hospitality sector and policymakers concerned with social welfare.


Keywords:
Article Type:
scientifique
Faculty:
Economie et Services
School:
EHL
Institute:
Aucun institut
Subject(s):
Economie/gestion
Date:
2021-03
Pagination:
13 p.
Published in:
Current issues in tourism
Numeration (vol. no.):
2021, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 811-823
DOI:
ISSN:
1368-3500
Appears in Collection:



 Record created 2021-03-29, last modified 2021-04-06

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